Snake venom for research

What is snake venom and why use ?

Snake venom is a highly modified saliva containing zootoxins that facilitate the immobilization and digestion of prey, and defense against threats. It is injected by unique fangs during a bite, and some species are also able to spit their venom.

The glands that secrete the zootoxins are a modification of the parotid salivary glands found in other vertebrates, and are usually situated on each side of the head, below and behind the eye, and encapsulated in a muscular sheath. The glands have large alveoli in which the synthesized venom is stored before being conveyed by a duct to the base of channeled or tubular fangs through which it is ejected.

Venoms contain more than 20 different compounds, mostly proteins and polypeptides. A complex mixture of proteins, enzymes, and various other substances with toxic and lethal properties serves to immobilize the prey animal,enzymes play an important role in the digestion of prey,and various other substances are responsible for important but non-lethal biological effects. Some of the proteins in snake venom have very specific effects on various biological functions including blood coagulation, blood pressure regulation, and transmission of the nervous or muscular impulses, and have been developed for use as pharmacological or diagnostic tools, and even useful drugs.

Neurotoxins

The start of another neural motivation goes as follows:

A trade of particles (charged iotas) over the nerve cell layer sends a depolarizing current towards the finish of the nerve (cell end).

At the point when the depolarizing current lands at the nerve cell end, the synapse acetylcholine (ACh), which is held in vesicles, is discharged into the space between the two nerves (neural connection). It moves over the neural connection to the postsynaptic receptors.

ACh ties to the receptors and moves the sign to the objective cell, and before long, it is demolished by acetylcholinesterase.

Fasciculins

These toxins attack cholinergic neurons (those that use ACh as a transmitter) by destroying acetylcholinesterase (AChE). ACh, therefore, cannot be broken down and stays in the receptor. This causes tetany (involuntary muscle contraction), which can lead to death. The toxins have been called fasciculins since after injection into mice, they cause severe, generalized and long-lasting (5-7 h) fasciculations (rapid muscle contractions).

Dendrotoxins

Dendrotoxins inhibit neurotransmissions by blocking the exchange of positive and negative ions across the neuronal membrane lead to no nerve impulse, thereby paralyzing the nerves.Snake example: mambas

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